Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) / Moonbounceによる通信の歴史


1928   US Naval Research Laboratoryで月面反射エコー検出の試み [NASA]

1946    3月米陸軍Army Signal Corpsがレーダーの月面反射波を確認 [NASA]
(111.5MHz, 3kW, 24dBのアンテナ使用 [ICOM])

1951    1021NRLMarylandStump Neckの地形固定67 x 80 m楕円パラボラから198MHzにて10マイクロ秒のパルスを750Wで送信。受信はレーダーアンテナ。予想より受信パルスの変形が小さく、月の1/10の直径の範囲(直径338km)からのみの反射と推定。 [NASA]

1953    W4AOW3GKPによる144MHz電波の月面反射波検出。[ARRL]

1954    724日 初めての人声によるEMEループ通信 by James H. Trexler /Naval Research Laboratory [NASA]

1955    112923:51PST  NRLStump Neckパラボラから301MHzで送信したテレタイプ信号のサンディエゴでの受信テストに成功。[NASA]

1956    123  NRLはオアフ島Wahiawaにて300MHz10kWのテレタイプ信号をSK-2レーダー受信機で受信。[NASA]

1960    1  米海軍のCommunication Moon Relay通信システム正式稼動。128日には開所セレモニーでホノルルからワシントンDCへ空母ハンコック上の人文字の航空写真が月経由で送信された。送信所はメリーランド州アナポリスとオアフ島のOpanaで直径28mの可動パラボラアンテナに400MHz100kW送信機。受信所はメリーランド州Cheltenhamとオアフ島Wahiawa。モードは写真ファクシミリとテレタイプ(16台並列60 words/min)[NASA]

1960   717日初めてアマチュア無線によるW1BUW6HB間の1296MHzでのEME通信。局はEimac Radio Club (San Carlos) W6AYRhododendron Swamp Radio Club W1BU [W6PO]

1960    エコー受動型通信(電波反射)衛星

1960前後)  NRLがウェストバージニア州Sugar Groveに直径600フィートの月面反射可動ディッシュアンテナを企画。1980年代に部材が通信衛星傍受施設に転用された。同時期にはロケットで酸化アルミニウムと硝酸セシウムと散布して反射波により電波情報を得る実験が米国南西部で実施され1時間反射が得られた[Bamford]

1961    1215  NRLの情報収集船Oxford号は初めて月面反射通信を受信した船舶となった [Bamford]。直径5mの可動パラボラアンテナ使用。1962年には1kWへの出力増強で双方向通信が可能となった [NASA]。実際にはシステムは実用に耐えなかったという[Bamford]

1962    テルスター能動型通信衛星、リレー1号能動型通信衛星(ケネディ暗殺時の画像を中継した衛星。中継地上局だったKDDI茨城衛星通信センターは2007316日に閉鎖されその直後32mディッシュが8N1EME臨時運用に使われた。ケネディ画像に使われたのは22m[JARL])。

1963    1122  Oxford号の後継Muller号はケネディ大統領暗殺の日にもMoon Relayシステムを使用した。[Bamford]

1964    シンコム3静止通信衛星(東京オリンピックの画像を中継)

1965    OSCAR-3 能動型アマチュア無線衛星

1960年代)  ARPA資金補助で建設されたアレシボ天文台を使用してNSAがソ連のレーダー電波を月面反射で受信。[Bamford]

1967  直径16フィートの月面反射通信アンテナを備えた情報収集船リバティー号がイスラエル軍に攻撃されたリバティー号事件。月面反射装置は故障の連続で殆ど稼動しなかった。[Bamford]

2007    12916:26Z  DF2ZC - DH7FB 1st ever Earth - International Space Station - Earth CW QSO。宇宙ステーション表面の受動反射による交信。144MHz 300W 21dBd八木・750W 20dBd八木。[Southgate ARC]

BAMFORD, James. "Body of Secrets" Anchor, New York  ISBN 0-385-49908-6, 2002.

(p.94) To quickly get intercepts from the ship to NSA, a unique sixteen-foot dish-shaped antenna was installed on its fantail.  On December 15, (1961) the Oxford became the first ship at sea ever to receive a message bounced off the moon.  ... said the message from the Chief of Naval Research Operations, "this message  being sent to you from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Field Station, Stump Neck, Maryland, via the moon."

(p.101) The Oxford's unique moon-bounce dish was critical in relaying both messages and intercepts from Havana's doorstep to the analysts in the command center.  But according to Parish, "It was only a twelve-hour-a-day system, unfortunately, because the moon was out of sight at times."

(p.130) ...Friday, November 22, 1963, .... In the early morning hours, Cuban intercepts from the ferret ship USNS Muller had ricocheted off the moon and down to NSA.

(p.141) 1950年代)... we considered the possibility of intercepting Soviet signals between thirty and fifty megahertz at Alert via auroral E ionization.

(p.160) Planned for Kagnew Station...was a pair of massive satellite dishes to capture Soviet signals bouncing off the moon,...a dish 85 feet in diameter...a massive bowl 150 feet wide sitting on top of a rotating pedestal capable of tracking the arc of the moon.

(p.177)  (1962) Although the ship (Oxford) had the moon bounce dish, seldom worked.  "....We may have used it once or twice.  It was mostly cover story."

(p.188)  (1967)  USS Liberty...Abidjan...the large moon-bounce antenna on the rear deck,

(p.207)  (1967)  Liberty...There were thin long-wire VLF antennas, conical electronic-countermeasure antennas, spiracle antennas, a microwave antenna on the bow, and whip antennas that extended thirty-five feet.  most unusual was the sixteen-foot dish-shaped moon-bounce antenna that rested high on the stern.

(p.208)  (1967 Liberty) troublesome moon-bounce antenna. The giant dish was used to communicate quickly, directly, and securely with NSA back at Fort Meade, and for this purpose both locations had to be able to see the moon at the same time.  But throughout the whole voyage, even back in Norfolk, the system was plagued with leaking hydraulic fluid.  now another critical part, the klystron, had burned out and ...

(p.360)  (1959-1960)  capturing the missile's signal. ... An intercept station was set up in the Bahamas.  Its target was an unsuspecting television station in Shreveport, Louisiana,...At a certain point over the southwestern United States, a rocket that had been launched from Eglin Air Force Base in Florida detonated into the atmosphere a chemical bomb containing aluminum oxide and cesium nitrate.  Cesium nitrate is hazardous. ... "... The TV signals had been reflected from the electron cloud produced by ionization of the chemical mixture.  Reception persisted for about sixty minutes."

(p.361)  ... in the early 1960s, ...ARPA began funding ... Arecibo Ionosphere Observatory in Puerto Rico.  ...900-foot-plus dish. ... NSA began using the antenna under the cover of conducting a study of lunar temperatures. ... "After just one week of operation,... We intercepted Soviet radar operating on the Arctic coast."

(p.362)  the NRL was ...West Virginia. ... Sugar Grove,... the largest movable structure ever built... bowl 66 stories tall and 600 feet in diameter...on mammoth drives capable of swinging it up, down, sideways, and 360 degrees around a 1,500-foot track... As long as the moon was visible,... by 1961 the construction still had advanced no further than the rotating tracks and pintle bearings.

(p.365)  hidden within the SolarRad satellite was NRL's Elint bird, codenamed GRAB,

(p.405) (1980's)  INTELSATs...mirror sites... The first ones... in Sugar Grove, West Virginia (using parts from the failed Moonbounce project);

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